Dyeing and Printing, the Two Significant Processes of Textile Industry and The Availability of Textile Market For the Local and International Supply

As we already knew that fashion trends are changing every day in the whole world. People want to look trendy and classy all the way long. Globally, the fashion industry and its trends are growing very rapidly in the last some years. So, basically, fashion includes clothes, garments, bags, shoes, accessories, and much more. Global textile markets gave fashion trends hype in the whole world as they produce a large variety of attractive products to consumers. Today, a number of brands appeared internationally who take the fashion world nearer to the people. These brands buy and sell globally with their appealing products towards the people.
First of all, we should know how these clothes or garments are made that we wear daily. Let me introduce you to the processes from which the clothes are being made. The important ones are dyeing and printing, which make the clothes more alluring towards you. 
 A dyeing process is an interchange of a fiber and a dye. Basically, it's a process of absorption and diffusion or a chemical reaction of them.
The process of dyeing is very ancient. The initial dyes fibers have been found in the Republic of Georgia's cave back to 34,000 BC. The process starts with insects and plants that have been found in China back more than about 5,000 years. From Sindh Pakistan, an early proof of dyeing comes where a cotton section dye from a vegetable dye.  

Types of Dyes:
 In the textile market place, a variety of dyes are available. Some of them are given below:
a) Acid dyes 
b) Azoic dyes
c) Mordant Dyes
d) Sulfur dyes 
e) Vat dyes
f) Disperse dyes
Methods of Dyeing:
                      It is done by partial or total submersion of yarn.
                       For dyeing a cotton cloth, it is a low-cost process.
                         On a perforated beam, the dye is imposed by the yarn with color in this method. 
                        In this process, the different cloth sections are coated with wax, so that only the uncoated section will get dye on it. This method is the oldest method in the history of dyeing. 
                        A cloth which consists of fibers to obtain different colors put into one dye bath with accord for dye usage.
                        By using specific colored links, this method is mostly ended on worsteds and woolens. Actually, it is a hand action or process.
                        When a given cloth is low in elastic strength, this method is applied. By the way, this process requires high production.
                   This method of dyeing is called jig because it is done in an open vessel. In a huge dye bath, the cloth is being gone into that until the specific shade is reached. 

Stages of Dyeing:
In the textile market place, the process consists of four stages.
1. The transportation of dye particles from the mixture to the substrate surface.
2. On the substrate surface, the absorption of the dye.
3. From the substrate surface, the penetration of dye to the internal of the fiber.
4. Through hydrogen bonds, the fixation of dye on the substrate.
Factors Influencing in Dyeing Process:
Fabric structure
Dye selection
Water quality
Heating and cooling rate
Liquor rate

   Printing is a process of relating colors to fabric or cloth in some specific designs or ornaments. Actually, we can correlate printing with dyeing, but there are some significant differences between them. Textile printing means applying one or more colors to a specific section of cloth only and smartly.
             Through the Islamic world, textile printing was well-known to Europe from the 12th century. The earliest proofs of printing were obtained from China. In the early 16th century, East India Company brought printed fabrics to English textile markets from India's subcontinent. 

Methods of Printing:
Roller Printing:
           The processing of this kind of printing is by rollers, which are connected to computers from which design is printed on the cloth. Every roller is different for different colors. It is a flexible procedure because a number of colors can be printed at the same time. 
Block Printing:
           Basically, it is a slow and challenging method. It is not suitable for high extent textile industry. The blocks are mainly made up of wood, and the patterns are carved by hand. For the completion of design or print, the procedure is repeated several times with different colors. 
Screen Printing:
           Due to the flexibility and improvement in the digital era, this method has increased rapidly. The screen printing machines are efficient in producing high volumes of certain products. Internationally, about 61 % of the textile printing industry comprises screen printing methods.
Ink-jet Printing:
           This technology has a vital interest in producers of textiles and carpet printing industries in the graphic market. This method's main advantage is that it lessens in time scale taken from initial towards final steps of a product. The machines used are of two types:

 Drop on demand (DOD)                                      Continuous stream (CS)

Heat Transfer Printing:
           From one channel to another, this technique includes transportation of design. Firstly, the given pattern is printed on a specific paper. Then the paper is placed nearer to the cloth and heated it.
Importance of Water Quality in These Processes:
The quality of water is a very major key in printing and dyeing processes. Principally, purified water is needed to keep away some defects such as shade dulling, chalking, unevenness, harsh handle, or dye precipitation.
Aims and Principles of These Processes:
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